Following Noel's commentary below are notes and responses to my questions. --Ken Westby, Editor

 

 

 

A FLOOD COMMENTARY

 by Noel Rude

October, 2011

 

 

Genesis 6:

א וַיְהִי כִּי־הֵחֵל הָאָדָם

1 And it came to pass, when men began

לָרֹב עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה

to multiply on the face of the [ground], [1]

וּבָנוֹת יֻלְּדוּ לָהֶם׃

and daughters were born unto them,

ב וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־הָאֱלֹהִים אֶת־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם

2 That the sons of God[2] saw the daughters of men

כִּי טֹבֹת הֵנָּה

that they were fair;

וַיִּקְחוּ לָהֶם נָשִׁים מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בָּחָרוּ׃

and they took them wives of all which they chose.

ג וַיֹּאמֶר יהוה

3 And the LORD said,

לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם

My spirit shall not always strive with man, [3]

בְּשַׁגַּם הוּא בָשָׂר

for that he also is flesh:

וְהָיוּ יָמָיו מֵאָה וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה׃

yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.

ד הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם

4 There were [nəphilîm][4] in the [land] in those days;

וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן

and also after that,

אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים

when the sons of God came

אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם

in unto the daughters of men,

וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם

and they bare children to them,

הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם

the same became mighty men which were of old,

אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃

men of renown.

ה וַיַּרְא יהוה

5 And God saw

כִּי רַבָּה רָעַת הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ

that the wickedness of man was great in the [land],

וְכָל־יֵצֶר מַחְשְׁבֹת לִבּוֹ

and that every imagination[5] of the thoughts of his heart

רַק רַע כָּל־הַיּוֹם׃

was only evil continually.

ו וַיִּנָּחֶם יהוה

6 And it repented the LORD

כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ

that he had made man on the [land],

וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃

and it grieved him at his heart.

ז וַיֹּאמֶר יהוה

7 And the LORD said,

אֶמְחֶה אֶת־הָאָדָם

I will destroy man

אֲשֶׁר־בָּרָאתִי

whom I have created

מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה

from the face of the [ground];

מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה

both man, and beast,

עַד־רֶמֶשׂ וְעַד־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם

and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; [6]

כִּי נִחַמְתִּי כִּי עֲשִׂיתִם׃

for it repenteth me that I have made them.

ח וְנֹחַ מָצָא חֵן בְּעֵינֵי יהוה׃

8 But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD.

ט אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ

9 These are the generations of Noah: [7]

נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו:

Noah was a just man and perfect in his generations,

אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃

and Noah walked with God.

י וַיּוֹלֶד נֹחַ שְׁלֹשָׁה בָנִים

10 And Noah begat three sons,

אֶת־שֵׁם אֶת־חָם וְאֶת־יָפֶת׃

Shem, Ham, and Japheth.

יא וַתִּשָּׁחֵת הָאָרֶץ לִפְנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים

11 The [land] also was corrupt before God,

וַתִּמָּלֵא הָאָרֶץ חָמָס׃

and the [land] was filled with violence.[8]

יב וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָרֶץ

12 And God looked upon the [land],

וְהִנֵּה נִשְׁחָתָה

and, behold, it was corrupt;

כִּי־הִשְׁחִית כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֶת־דַּרְכּוֹ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

for all flesh had corrupted his way upon the [land].

יג וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים לְנֹחַ

13 And God said unto Noah,

קֵץ כָּל־בָּשָׂר בָּא לְפָנַי

The end of all flesh is come before me;

כִּי־מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ חָמָס מִפְּנֵיהֶם

for the [land] is filled with violence through them;

וְהִנְנִי מַשְׁחִיתָם אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃

and, behold, I will destroy them with the [land].

יד עֲשֵׂה לְךָ תֵּבַת עֲצֵי־גֹפֶר

14 Make thee an ark[9] of gopher wood; [10]

קִנִּים תַּעֲשֶׂה אֶת־הַתֵּבָה

rooms shalt thou make in the ark,

וְכָפַרְתָּ אֹתָהּ מִבַּיִת וּמִחוּץ בַּכֹּפֶר׃

and shalt pitch it within and without with pitch.[11]

טו וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר תַּעֲשֶׂה אֹתָהּ

15 And this is the fashion which thou shalt make it of:

שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת אַמָּה אֹרֶךְ הַתֵּבָה

The length of the ark shall be three hundred cubits,

חֲמִשִּׁים אַמָּה רָחְבָּהּ

the breadth of it fifty cubits,

וּשְׁלֹשִׁים אַמָּה קוֹמָתָהּ׃

and the height of it thirty cubits.

טז צֹהַר תַּעֲשֶׂה לַתֵּבָה

16 A window shalt thou make to the ark,

וְאֶל־אַמָּה תְּכַלֶּנָּה מִלְמַעְלָה

and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above;

וּפֶתַח הַתֵּבָה בְּצִדָּהּ תָּשִׂים

and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the side thereof;

תַּחְתִּיִּם שְׁנִיִּם וּשְׁלִשִׁים תַּעֲשֶׂהָ׃

with lower, second, and third stories shalt thou make it.

יז וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי

17 And, behold, I, even I,

מֵבִיא אֶת־הַמַּבּוּל מַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ

do bring [the] flood[12] of waters upon the [land],

לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים

to destroy all flesh, wherein is the [spirit] of life,

מִתַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם

from under heaven;

כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־בָּאָרֶץ יִגְוָע׃

and every thing that is in the [land] shall die.

יח וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתָּךְ

18 But with thee will I establish my covenant; [13]

וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה

and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, and thy sons,

אַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וּנְשֵׁי־בָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ׃

and thy wife, and thy sons’ wives with thee.

יט וּמִכָּל־הָחַי מִכָּל־בָּשָׂר

19 And of every living thing of all flesh,

שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל תָּבִיא אֶל־הַתֵּבָה

two of every sort shalt thou bring into the ark,

לְהַחֲיֹת אִתָּךְ

to keep them alive with thee;

זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה יִהְיוּ׃

they shall be male and female.

כ מֵהָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ

20 Of fowls after their kind,

וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ

and of cattle after their kind,

מִכֹּל רֶמֶשׂ הָאֲדָמָה לְמִינֵהוּ

of every creeping thing of the earth after his kind,

שְׁנַיִם מִכֹּל יָבֹאוּ אֵלֶיךָ

two of every sort shall come unto thee,

לְהַחֲיוֹת׃

to keep them alive.

כא וְאַתָּה קַח־לְךָ מִכָּל־מַאֲכָל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל

21 And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten,

וְאָסַפְתָּ אֵלֶיךָ

and thou shalt gather it to thee;

וְהָיָה לְךָ וְלָהֶם לְאָכְלָה׃

and it shall be for food for thee, and for them.[14]

כב וַיַּעַשׂ נֹחַ

22 Thus did Noah;

כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים

according to all that God commanded him,

כֵּן עָשָׂה׃

so did he.

א וַיֹּאמֶר יהוה לְנֹחַ

7:1 And the LORD said unto Noah,

בֹּא־אַתָּה וְכָל־בֵּיתְךָ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה

Come thou and all thy house into the ark; [15]

כִּי־אֹתְךָ רָאִיתִי צַדִּיק לְפָנַי

for thee have I seen righteous before me

בַּדּוֹר הַזֶּה׃

in this generation.[16]

ב מִכֹּל הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהוֹרָה תִּקַּח־לְךָ

2 Of every clean beast thou shalt take to thee

שִׁבְעָה שִׁבְעָה

by sevens,

אִישׁ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ

the male and his female:

וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא טְהֹרָה הִוא שְׁנַיִם

and of beasts that are not clean by two,

אִישׁ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ׃

the male and his female.

ג גַּם מֵעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם שִׁבְעָה שִׁבְעָה

3 Of fowls also of the air by sevens, [17]

זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה

the male and the female;

לְחַיּוֹת זֶרַע עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃

to keep seed alive upon the face of all the [land].

ד כִּי לְיָמִים עוֹד שִׁבְעָה

4 For yet seven days,

אָנֹכִי מַמְטִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ

and I will cause it to rain upon the [land]

אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה

forty days and forty nights;

וּמָחִיתִי אֶת־כָּל־הַיְקוּם

and [I will destroy] every living substance

אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי

that I have made

מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃

… from off the face of the [ground].[18]

ה וַיַּעַשׂ נֹחַ כְּכֹל

5 And Noah did according unto all

אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּהוּ יהוה׃

that the LORD commanded him.

ו וְנֹחַ בֶּן־שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה

6 And Noah was six hundred years old

וְהַמַּבּוּל הָיָה מַיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

[and] the flood [was water] upon the [land].

ז וַיָּבֹא נֹחַ וּבָנָיו וְאִשְׁתּוֹ

7 And Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife,

וּנְשֵׁי־בָנָיו אִתּוֹ

and his sons’ wives with him,

אֶל־הַתֵּבָה

into the ark,

מִפְּנֵי מֵי הַמַּבּוּל׃

[from the face] of the waters of the flood.

ח מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהוֹרָה

8 Of clean beasts,

וּמִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר אֵינֶנָּה טְהֹרָה

and of beasts that are not clean,

וּמִן־הָעוֹף

and of fowls,

וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־רֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאֲדָמָה׃

and of every thing that creepeth upon the [ground],

ט שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם בָּאוּ אֶל־נֹחַ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה

9 There went in two and two unto Noah into the ark,

זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה

the male and the female,

כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ׃

as God had commanded Noah.

י וַיְהִי לְשִׁבְעַת הַיָּמִים

10 And it came to pass after seven days,

וּמֵי הַמַּבּוּל הָיוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

that the waters of the flood were upon the [land].

יא בִּשְׁנַת שֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה לְחַיֵּי־נֹחַ

11 In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life,

בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּשִׁבְעָה־עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ

in the second month, the seventeenth day of the month,

בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִבְקְעוּ

the same day were [broken up],

כָּל־מַעְיְנֹת תְּהוֹם רַבָּה

all the fountains of the great deep

וַאֲרֻבֹּת הַשָּׁמַיִם נִפְתָּחוּ׃

and the windows of heaven were opened.

 

The great deep (תְּהוֹם רַבָּה təhôm rabbāʰ) recalls Genesis 1:2,

 

ב וְהָאָרֶץ הָיְתָה

2 And the [land] was

ἡ δὲ γῆ ἦν

תֹהוּ וָבֹהוּ

without form, and void;

ἀόρατος καὶ ἀκατασκεύαστος

וְחֹשֶׁךְ עַל־פְּנֵי תְהוֹם

and darkness was upon the face of the deep.

καὶ σκότος ἐπάνω τῆς ἀβύσσου

וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת

And the Spirit of God moved

καὶ πνεῦμα θεοῦ ἐπεφέρετο

עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃

upon the face of the waters.

ἐπάνω τοῦ ὕδατος.

 

The term is poetic, as in Job 28:

 

יב וְהַחָכְמָה מֵאַיִן תִּמָּצֵא

12 But where shall wisdom be found?

ἡ δὲ σοφία πόθεν εὑρέθη

וְאֵי זֶה מְקוֹם

and where is the place

ποῖος δὲ τόπος ἐστὶν

בִּינָה׃

of understanding?

τῆς ἐπιστήμης

יג לֹא־יָדַע אֱנוֹשׁ עֶרְכָּהּ

13 Man knoweth not the price thereof;

οὐκ οἶδεν βροτὸς ὁδὸν αὐτῆς

וְלֹא תִמָּצֵא בְּאֶרֶץ הַחַיִּים׃

neither is it found in the land of the living.

οὐδὲ μὴ εὑρεθῇ ἐν ἀνθρώποις

יד תְּהוֹם אָמַר

14 The depth [təhôm] saith,

ἄβυσσος εἶπεν

לֹא בִי־הִיא

It is not in me:

οὐκ ἔστιν ἐν ἐμοί

וְיָם אָמַר

and the sea saith,

καὶ θάλασσα εἶπεν

אֵין עִמָּדִי׃

It is not with me.

οὐκ ἔστιν μετ' ἐμοῦ

 

The Septuagint translatesתְּהוֹם  təhôm (as in the above verses) with ἄβυσσος ‘bottomless pit’, which is symbolically significant in the New Testament, as in Revelation 9:11,

 

ἔχουσιν ἐπ' αὐτῶν βασιλέα

And they had a king over them,

τὸν ἄγγελον τῆς ἀβύσσου,

which is the angel of the bottomless pit,

ὄνομα αὐτῷ Ἑβραϊστὶ Ἀβαδδὼν

whose name in the Hebrew tongue is Abaddon,

καὶ ἐν τῇ Ἑλληνικῇ ὄνομα ἔχει Ἀπολλύων.

but in the Greek tongue hath his name Apollyon.

 

If the “great deep” carries negative overtones, the windows of heaven (אֲרֻבֹּת הַשָּׁמַיִם) recall the opposite, as in 2Kings 7:1-2,

 

Then Elisha said, Hear ye the word of the LORD; Thus saith the LORD, To morrow about this time shall a measure of fine flour be sold for a shekel, and two measures of barley for a shekel, in the gate of Samaria. 2 Then a lord on whose hand the king leaned answered the man of God, and said, Behold, if the LORD would make windows in heaven [הִנֵּה יהוה עֹשֶׂה אֲרֻבּוֹת בַּשָּׁמַיִם], might this thing be? And he said, Behold, thou shalt see it with thine eyes, but shalt not eat thereof.

 

And again in 2Kings 7:18-19,

 

And it came to pass as the man of God had spoken to the king, saying, Two measures of barley for a shekel, and a measure of fine flour for a shekel, shall be to morrow about this time in the gate of Samaria: And that lord answered the man of God, and said, Now, behold, if the LORD should make windows in heaven [וְהִנֵּה יהוה עֹשֶׂה אֲרֻבּוֹת בַּשָּׁמַיִם], might such a thing be? And he said, Behold, thou shalt see it with thine eyes, but shalt not eat thereof.

 

And then there is Malachi 3:10,

 

Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse, that there may be meat in mine house, and prove me now herewith, saith the LORD of hosts, if I will not open you the windows of heaven [אֵת אֲרֻבּוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם], and pour you out a blessing, that there shall not be room enough to receive it.

 

This verse (Gen 7:11) hints that this great event of the second millennium was prefigured in the symbolism of the second day in Genesis 1: 6-8,

 

And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.

 

יב וַיְהִי הַגֶּשֶׁם עַל־הָאָרֶץ

7:12 And the rain was upon the [land]

אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם וְאַרְבָּעִים לָיְלָה׃

forty days and forty nights.

יג בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה בָּא נֹחַ

13 In the selfsame day entered Noah,

וְשֵׁם־וְחָם וָיֶפֶת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ

and Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of Noah,

וְאֵשֶׁת נֹחַ

and Noah’s wife,

וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת נְשֵׁי־בָנָיו אִתָּם אֶל־הַתֵּבָה׃

and the three wives of his sons with them, into the ark;

יד הֵמָּה וְכָל־הַחַיָּה לְמִינָהּ

14 They, and every beast after his kind,

וְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ

and all the cattle after their kind,

וְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ

and every creeping thing

הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְמִינֵהוּ

that creepeth upon the [land] after his kind,

וְכָל־הָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ כֹּל צִפּוֹר כָּל־כָּנָף׃

and every fowl after his kind, every bird of every sort.

טו וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־נֹחַ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה

15 And they went in unto Noah into the ark,

שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם מִכָּל־הַבָּשָׂר

two and two of all flesh,

אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים׃

wherein is the breath of life.

טז וְהַבָּאִים

16 And they that went in,

זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה מִכָּל־בָּשָׂר בָּאוּ

went in male and female of all flesh,

כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּה אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים

as God had commanded him:

וַיִּסְגֹּר יהוה בַּעֲדוֹ׃

and the LORD shut him in.

יז וַיְהִי הַמַּבּוּל אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם

17 And the flood was forty days

עַל־הָאָרֶץ

upon the [land];

וַיִּרְבּוּ הַמַּיִם

and the waters increased,

וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־הַתֵּבָה

and bare up the ark,

וַתָּרָם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ׃

and it was lift up above the [land].

יח וַיִּגְבְּרוּ הַמַּיִם

18 And the waters prevailed,

וַיִּרְבּוּ מְאֹד עַל־הָאָרֶץ

and were increased greatly upon the [land];

וַתֵּלֶךְ הַתֵּבָה עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם׃

and the ark went upon the face of the waters.[19]

יט וְהַמַּיִם גָּבְרוּ מְאֹד מְאֹד

19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly

עַל־הָאָרֶץ

upon the [land];

וַיְכֻסּוּ כָּל־הֶהָרִים הַגְּבֹהִים

and all the high hills [were covered],

אֲשֶׁר־תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃

that were under the whole heaven, ….[20]

כ חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה אַמָּה מִלְמַעְלָה

20 Fifteen cubits upward

גָּבְרוּ הַמָּיִם

did the waters prevail;

וַיְכֻסּוּ הֶהָרִים׃

and the mountains were covered.[21]

כא וַיִּגְוַע כָּל־בָּשָׂר הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ

21 And all flesh died that moved upon the [land],

בָּעוֹף וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבַחַיָּה

both of fowl, and of cattle, and of beast,

וּבְכָל־הַשֶּׁרֶץ

and of every creeping thing

הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ

that creepeth upon the [land],

וְכֹל הָאָדָם׃

and every man:

כב כֹּל אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁמַת־רוּחַ חַיִּים בְּאַפָּיו

22 All in whose nostrils was the [spirit] of life,

מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בֶּחָרָבָה מֵתוּ׃

of all that was in the dry land, died.

כג וַיִּמַח אֶת־כָּל־הַיְקוּם

23 And every living substance was destroyed

אֲשֶׁר עַל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה

which was upon the face of the ground,

מֵאָדָם עַד־בְּהֵמָה עַד־רֶמֶשׂ

both man, and cattle, and the creeping things,

וְעַד־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם

and the fowl of the heaven;

וַיִּמָּחוּ מִן־הָאָרֶץ

and they were destroyed from the [land]:

וַיִּשָּׁאֶר אַךְ־נֹחַ

and Noah only remained alive,

וַאֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ בַּתֵּבָה׃

and they that were with him in the ark.

כד וַיִּגְבְּרוּ הַמַּיִם עַל־הָאָרֶץ

24 And the waters prevailed upon the [land]

חֲמִשִּׁים וּמְאַת יוֹם׃

an hundred and fifty days.

וַיִּזְכֹּר אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ

8:1 And God remembered Noah,

וְאֵת כָּל־הַחַיָּה וְאֶת־כָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה

and every living thing, and all the cattle

אֲשֶׁר אִתּוֹ בַּתֵּבָה

that was with him in the ark:

וַיַּעֲבֵר אֱלֹהִים רוּחַ עַל־הָאָרֶץ

and God made a wind to pass over the [land],

וַיָּשֹׁכּוּ הַמָּיִם׃

and the waters asswaged;

ב וַיִּסָּכְרוּ מַעְיְנֹת תְּהוֹם

2 The fountains also of the deep

וַאֲרֻבֹּת הַשָּׁמָיִם

and the windows of heaven were stopped,[22]

וַיִּכָּלֵא הַגֶּשֶׁם מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃

and the rain from heaven was restrained;

ג וַיָּשֻׁבוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ

3 And the waters returned from off the [land]

הָלוֹךְ וָשׁוֹב

continually:

וַיַּחְסְרוּ הַמַּיִם

and … the waters were abated.

מִקְצֵה חֲמִשִּׁים וּמְאַת יוֹם׃

after the end of the hundred and fifty days

ד וַתָּנַח הַתֵּבָה בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי

4 And the ark rested in the seventh month,

בְּשִׁבְעָה־עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ

on the seventeenth day of the month,

עַל הָרֵי אֲרָרָט׃

upon the mountains of Ararat.[23]

ה וְהַמַּיִם הָיוּ הָלוֹךְ וְחָסוֹר

5 And the waters decreased continually

עַד הַחֹדֶשׁ הָעֲשִׂירִי

until the tenth month:

בָּעֲשִׂירִי בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ

in the tenth month, on the first day of the month,

נִרְאוּ רָאשֵׁי הֶהָרִים׃

were the tops of the mountains seen.

ו וַיְהִי מִקֵּץ אַרְבָּעִים יוֹם

6 And it came to pass at the end of forty days,

וַיִּפְתַּח נֹחַ אֶת־חַלּוֹן הַתֵּבָה

that Noah opened the window of the ark

אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה׃

which he had made:

ז וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הָעֹרֵב

7 And he sent forth [the] raven,

וַיֵּצֵא יָצוֹא וָשׁוֹב

which went forth to and fro,

עַד־יְבֹשֶׁת הַמַּיִם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ׃

until the waters were dried up from off the [land].[24]

ח וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה מֵאִתּוֹ

8 Also he sent forth a dove from him,

לִרְאוֹת הֲקַלּוּ הַמַּיִם

to see if the waters were abated

מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃

from off the face of the ground;

ט וְלֹא־מָצְאָה הַיּוֹנָה מָנוֹחַ לְכַף־רַגְלָהּ

9 But the dove found no rest for the sole of her foot,

וַתָּשָׁב אֵלָיו אֶל־הַתֵּבָה

and she returned unto him into the ark,

כִּי־מַיִם עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ

for the waters were on the face of the whole [land]:

וַיִּשְׁלַח יָדוֹ וַיִּקָּחֶהָ

then he put forth his hand, and took her,

וַיָּבֵא אֹתָהּ אֵלָיו אֶל־הַתֵּבָה׃

and pulled her in unto him into the ark.

י וַיָּחֶל עוֹד שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֲחֵרִים

10 And he stayed yet other seven days;

וַיֹּסֶף שַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה מִן־הַתֵּבָה׃

and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark;

יא וַתָּבֹא אֵלָיו הַיּוֹנָה לְעֵת עֶרֶב

11 And the dove came in to him in the evening;

וְהִנֵּה עֲלֵה־זַיִת טָרָף בְּפִיהָ

and, lo, in her mouth was an olive leaf pluckt off:

וַיֵּדַע נֹחַ

so Noah knew

כִּי־קַלּוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ׃

that the waters were abated from off the [land].

יב וַיִּיָּחֶל עוֹד שִׁבְעַת יָמִים אֲחֵרִים

12 And he stayed yet other seven days;

וַיְשַׁלַּח אֶת־הַיּוֹנָה

and sent forth the dove;

וְלֹא־יָסְפָה שׁוּב־אֵלָיו עוֹד׃

which returned not again unto him any more.[25]

יג וַיְהִי

13 And it came to pass

בְּאַחַת וְשֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה

in the six hundredth and first year,

בָּרִאשׁוֹן בְּאֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ

in the first month, the first day of the month,

חָרְבוּ הַמַּיִם מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ

the waters were dried up from off the [land]:

וַיָּסַר נֹחַ אֶת־מִכְסֵה הַתֵּבָה

and Noah removed the covering of the ark,

וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה חָרְבוּ פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃

and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.

יד וּבַחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי

14 And in the second month,

בְּשִׁבְעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ

on the seven and twentieth day of the month,

יָבְשָׁה הָאָרֶץ׃

was the [land] dried.

טו וַיְדַבֵּר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ לֵאמֹר׃

15 And God spake unto Noah, saying,

טז צֵא מִן־הַתֵּבָה

16 Go forth of the ark,

אַתָּה, וְאִשְׁתְּךָ וּבָנֶיךָ

thou, and thy wife, and thy sons,

וּנְשֵׁי־בָנֶיךָ אִתָּךְ׃

and thy sons’ wives with thee.

יז כָּל־הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר־אִתְּךָ מִכָּל־בָּשָׂר

17 … every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh,

בָּעוֹף וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ

both of fowl, and of cattle, and of every creeping thing

הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ

that creepeth upon the [land];

הוצא (הַיְצֵא) אִתָּךְ

Bring forth with thee

וְשָׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ

that they may breed abundantly in the [land],

וּפָרוּ וְרָבוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

and be fruitful, and multiply upon the [land].

יח וַיֵּצֵא־נֹחַ

18 And Noah went forth,

וּבָנָיו וְאִשְׁתּוֹ וּנְשֵׁי־בָנָיו אִתּוֹ׃

and his sons, and his wife, and his sons’ wives with him:

יט כָּל־הַחַיָּה כָּל־הָרֶמֶשׂ וְכָל־הָעוֹף

19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl,

כֹּל רוֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ

and whatsoever creepeth upon the [land],

לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתֵיהֶם

after their kinds,

יָצְאוּ מִן־הַתֵּבָה׃

went forth out of the ark.

כ וַיִּבֶן נֹחַ מִזְבֵּחַ לַיהוה

20 And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD;

וַיִּקַּח מִכֹּל הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּהֹרָה

and took of every clean beast,

וּמִכֹּל הָעוֹף הַטָּהוֹר

and of every clean fowl,

וַיַּעַל עֹלֹת בַּמִּזְבֵּחַ׃

and offered burnt offerings on the altar.

כא וַיָּרַח יהוה אֶת־רֵיחַ הַנִּיחֹחַ

21 And the LORD smelled a sweet savour;

וַיֹּאמֶר יהוה אֶל־לִבּוֹ

and the LORD said in his heart,

לֹא־אֹסִף לְקַלֵּל עוֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה

I will not again curse the ground any more

בַּעֲבוּר הָאָדָם

for man’s sake;[26]

כִּי יֵצֶר לֵב הָאָדָם רַע מִנְּעֻרָיו

for the imagination of man’s heart is evil from his youth;[27]

וְלֹא־אֹסִף עוֹד לְהַכּוֹת אֶת־כָּל־חַי

neither will I again smite any more every thing living,

כַּאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי׃

as I have done.

כב עֹד כָּל־יְמֵי הָאָרֶץ

22 While the [land] remaineth,

זֶרַע וְקָצִיר

seedtime and harvest,

וְקֹר וָחֹם

and cold and heat,

וְקַיִץ וָחֹרֶף

and summer and winter,

וְיוֹם וָלַיְלָה

and day and night

לֹא יִשְׁבֹּתוּ׃

shall not cease.[28]

וַיְבָרֶךְ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־נֹחַ וְאֶת־בָּנָיו

Gen 9:1 And God blessed Noah and his sons,

וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם

and said unto them,

פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ׃

Be fruitful, and multiply, and [fill] the [land].

ב וּמוֹרַאֲכֶם וְחִתְּכֶם יִהְיֶה

2 And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be

עַל כָּל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ

upon every beast of the [land],

וְעַל כָּל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמָיִם

and upon every fowl of the air,

בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר תִּרְמֹשׂ הָאֲדָמָה

upon all that moveth upon the [ground],

וּבְכָל־דְּגֵי הַיָּם

and upon all the fishes of the sea;

בְּיֶדְכֶם נִתָּנוּ׃

into your hand are they delivered.

 

This reflects the command originally given to Adam (Gen 1:28),

 

וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים

And God blessed them, and God said unto them,

פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ

Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it:

וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם

and have dominion over the fish of the sea,

וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם

and over the fowl of the air,

וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ:

and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

 

The beasts symbolize the nations which are finally pacified when messiah sits upon his throne (Isaiah11):

 

1 And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots: 2 And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD; 3 And shall make him of quick understanding in the fear of the LORD: and he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, neither reprove after the hearing of his ears: 4 But with righteousness shall he judge the poor, and reprove with equity for the meek of the earth: and he shall smite the earth: with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked. 5 And righteousness shall be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins.

 

6 The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them. 7 And the cow and the bear shall feed; their young ones shall lie down together: and the lion shall eat straw like the ox. 8 And the sucking child shall play on the hole of the asp, and the weaned child shall put his hand on the cockatrice’ den.

 

9 They shall not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain: for the earth shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea. 10 And in that day there shall be a root of Jesse, which shall stand for an ensign of the people; to it shall the Gentiles seek: and his rest shall be glorious.

 

Note: “…for the [land] shall be full of the knowledge of the LORD, as the waters cover the sea.”  Consider the metaphor where the land symbolizes the human heart—i.e., the word “which was sown in his heart.” (Mat 13:19)

 

For Paul Adam typified messiah (Rom 5:14), and in Colossians 1 he who bears the image of God is given dominion not just over the beasts but governments:

 

ὅς ἐστιν εἰκὼν τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ ἀοράτου,

15 Who is the image of the invisible God,

πρωτότοκος πάσης κτίσεως,

the firstborn of every creature:

ὅτι ἐν αὐτῷ ἐκτίσθη τὰ πάντα

16 For [in] him were all things created,

ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς καὶ ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς

that are in heaven, and that are in earth,

τὰ ὁρατὰ καὶ τὰ ἀόρατα,

visible and invisible,

εἴτε θρόνοι εἴτε κυριότητες

whether they be thrones, or dominions,

εἴτε ἀρχαὶ εἴτε ἐξουσίαι·

or principalities, or powers:

τὰ πάντα δι' αὐτοῦ καὶ εἰς αὐτὸν ἔκτισται·

all things were created by him, and for him:

 

Notice above (Col 1:16) that heaven and earth are not created “in him”—only all things that are in heaven and earth.  Note also that there is no mention of the sea, just as there is no mention of the sea in Genesis 2 when Adam names the creatures that are in heaven and that are in earth—he does not name the fish.  God not Adam names heaven and earth.  Genesis 1:8, “And God called the firmament Heaven.”  Genesis 1:10, “And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas…”  Let me suggest that there is symbolic significance in Amos 9:6—“It is he that buildeth his stories in the heaven, and hath founded his troop in the earth; he that calleth for the waters of the sea, and poureth them out upon the face of the earth: The LORD is his name.”

 

ג כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי

3 Every moving thing that liveth

לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה

shall be meat for you;

כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃

even as the green herb have I given you all things.[29]

ד אַךְ־בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ

4 But flesh with the [soul] thereof,

דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃

which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.

ה וְאַךְ אֶת־דִּמְכֶם לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם אֶדְרֹשׁ

5 And surely your blood of your lives will I require;

מִיַּד כָּל־חַיָּה אֶדְרְשֶׁנּוּ

at the hand of every beast will I require it,

וּמִיַּד הָאָדָם

and at the hand of man;

מִיַּד אִישׁ אָחִיו

at the hand of every man’s brother

אֶדְרֹשׁ אֶת־נֶפֶשׁ הָאָדָם׃

will I require the [soul] of man.

ו שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם

6 Whoso sheddeth man’s blood,

בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ:

by man shall his blood be shed:

כִּי בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם׃

for in the image of God made he man.

ז וְאַתֶּם

7 And you,

פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ

be ye fruitful, and multiply;

שִׁרְצוּ בָאָרֶץ

bring forth abundantly in the [land],

וּרְבוּ־בָהּ׃

and multiply therein.

ח וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ

8 And God spake unto Noah,

וְאֶל־בָּנָיו אִתּוֹ לֵאמֹר׃

and to his sons with him, saying,

ט וַאֲנִי הִנְנִי מֵקִים אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם

9 And I, behold, I establish my covenant with you,

וְאֶת־זַרְעֲכֶם אַחֲרֵיכֶם׃

and with your seed after you;

י וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם

10 And with every living creature that is with you,

בָּעוֹף בַּבְּהֵמָה

of the fowl, of the cattle,

וּבְכָל־חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אִתְּכֶם

and of every beast of the [land] with you;

מִכֹּל יֹצְאֵי הַתֵּבָה

from all that go out of the ark,

לְכֹל חַיַּת הָאָרֶץ׃

to every beast of the [land].

יא וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתְּכֶם

11 And I will establish my covenant with you,

וְלֹא־יִכָּרֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר עוֹד

neither shall all flesh be cut off any more

מִמֵּי הַמַּבּוּל

by the waters of a flood;

וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד מַבּוּל

neither shall there any more be a flood

לְשַׁחֵת הָאָרֶץ׃

to destroy the [land].

 

Scripture is structured around two great covenants, this one from the 2nd millennium wherein God establishes his throne over all the nations through the seed of Noah, and then the covenant that results in God’s presence in Jerusalem (Isaiah 66:1): “Thus saith the LORD, The heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool…”  Remember—Adam does not name heaven and earth (sky and land)—God does.  Heaven is named in the 2nd day/millennium (Gen 1:8), “And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.”  And earth is name in the 3rd day/millennium (Gen 1:10-13), “And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas … And the evening and the morning were the third day.”

 

The firmament (רָקִיעַ rāqîa‘) symbolizes the translucent platform under the throne of God—as in Ezekiel,

 

Chapter 1:22 And the likeness of the firmament [רָקִיעַ] upon the heads of the living creature was as the colour of the terrible crystal, stretched forth over their heads above. 23 And under the firmament [וְתַחַת הָרָקִיעַ] were their wings straight, the one toward the other: every one had two, which covered on this side, and every one had two, which covered on that side, their bodies. 24 And when they went, I heard the noise of their wings, like the noise of great waters, as the voice of the Almighty, the voice of speech, as the noise of an host: when they stood, they let down their wings. 25 And there was a voice from the firmament [מֵעַל לָרָקִיעַ] that was over their heads, when they stood, and had let down their wings. 26 And above the firmament [וּמִמַּעַל לָרָקִיעַ] that was over their heads was the likeness of a throne, as the appearance of a sapphire stone: and upon the likeness of the throne was the likeness as the appearance of a man above upon it.

 

Chapter 10:1 Then I looked, and, behold, in the firmament [אֶל־הָרָקִיעַ] that was above the head of the cherubims there appeared over them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne [כְּאֶבֶן סַפִּיר כְּמַרְאֵה דְּמוּת כִּסֵּא].

 

And this of course recalls the wedding supper of the Almighty (Exodus 24):

 

9 Then went up Moses, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel: 10 And they saw the God of Israel: and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone [כְּמַעֲשֵׂה לִבְנַת הַסַּפִּיר], and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness. 11 And upon the nobles of the children of Israel he laid not his hand: also they saw God, and did eat and drink.

 

God’s footstool is in Jerusalem (Psalms 132:7), “We will go into his tabernacles: we will worship at his footstool.”  From God’s throne in heaven he rules all nations (Psalms 11:4), “The LORD is in his holy temple, the LORD’s throne is in heaven: his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men [בְּנֵי אָדָם].”  But in the future his throne over the nations will be in Jerusalem (Jer 3:17): “At that time they shall call Jerusalem the throne of the LORD; and all the nations shall be gathered unto it, to the name of the LORD, to Jerusalem: neither shall they walk any more after the imagination of their evil heart.”

1

4

7

2

5

 

3

6

 

 

One way of organizing the days/millennia of Genesis is to pattern the 5th day/millennium with the 2nd, and the 6th day/millennium with the 3rd.  Thus on Pentecost to inaugurate the coming 5th millennium there is a connection made with the confusion of languages at Babel. Thus Gen 11:9, “Therefore is the name of it called Babel [בָּבֶל/Σύγχυσις]; because the LORD did there confound [בָּלַל/συνέχεεν] the language of all the earth: and from thence did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.”  And in Acts 2:6 we read, “Now when this was noised abroad, the multitude came together, and were confounded [συνεχύθη], because that every man heard them speak in his own language.”

 

In the 3rd day/millennium God married Israel at Sinai and before the end of the 6th day/millennium he remarries all Israel in a new covenant (Jer 31:31): “Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah…”

 

יב וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים

12 And God said,

זֹאת אוֹת־הַבְּרִית

This is the token[30] of the covenant

אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי נֹתֵן בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם

which I make between me and you

וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה אֲשֶׁר אִתְּכֶם

and every living creature that is with you,

לְדֹרֹת עוֹלָם׃

for perpetual generations:

יג אֶת־קַשְׁתִּי נָתַתִּי בֶּעָנָן

13 I do set my bow in the cloud,

וְהָיְתָה לְאוֹת בְּרִית

and it shall be for a token of a covenant

בֵּינִי וּבֵין הָאָרֶץ׃

between me and the [land].

יד וְהָיָה

14 And it shall come to pass,

בְּעַנְנִי עָנָן עַל־הָאָרֶץ

when I bring a cloud over the [land],

וְנִרְאֲתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן׃

that the bow shall be seen in the cloud:

טו וְזָכַרְתִּי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי

15 And I will remember my covenant,

אֲשֶׁר בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם

which is between me and you

וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר

and every living creature of all flesh;

וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד הַמַּיִם לְמַבּוּל

and the waters shall no more become a flood

לְשַׁחֵת כָּל־בָּשָׂר׃

to destroy all flesh.[31]

טז וְהָיְתָה הַקֶּשֶׁת בֶּעָנָן

16 And the bow shall be in the cloud;

וּרְאִיתִיהָ

and I will look upon it,

לִזְכֹּר בְּרִית עוֹלָם

that I may remember the everlasting covenant

בֵּין אֱלֹהִים וּבֵין כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה בְּכָל־בָּשָׂר

between God and every living creature of all flesh

אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

that is upon the [land].

יז וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־נֹחַ

17 And God said unto Noah,

זֹאת אוֹת־הַבְּרִית

This is the token of the covenant,

אֲשֶׁר הֲקִמֹתִי בֵּינִי

which I have established between me

וּבֵין כָּל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃

and all flesh that is upon the [land].

יח וַיִּהְיוּ בְנֵי־נֹחַ

18 And the sons of Noah,

הַיֹּצְאִים מִן־הַתֵּבָה

that went forth of the ark,

שֵׁם וְחָם וָיָפֶת

were Shem, and Ham, and Japheth:

וְחָם הוּא אֲבִי כְנָעַן׃

and Ham is the father of Canaan.

יט שְׁלֹשָׁה אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי־נֹחַ

19 These are the three sons of Noah:

וּמֵאֵלֶּה נָפְצָה כָל־הָאָרֶץ׃

and of them was the whole [land] overspread.

כ וַיָּחֶל נֹחַ אִישׁ הָאֲדָמָה

20 And Noah began to be an husbandman,

וַיִּטַּע כָּרֶם׃

and he planted a vineyard:

כא וַיֵּשְׁתְּ מִן־הַיַּיִן

21 And he drank of the wine,

וַיִּשְׁכָּר

and was drunken;

וַיִּתְגַּל בְּתוֹךְ אָהֳלֹה׃

and he was uncovered within his tent.

כב וַיַּרְא חָם אֲבִי כְנַעַן

22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw

אֵת עֶרְוַת אָבִיו

the nakedness of his father,

וַיַּגֵּד לִשְׁנֵי־אֶחָיו בַּחוּץ׃

and told his two brethren without.

כג וַיִּקַּח שֵׁם וָיֶפֶת אֶת־הַשִּׂמְלָה

23 And Shem and Japheth took a garment,

וַיָּשִׂימוּ עַל־שְׁכֶם שְׁנֵיהֶם

and laid it upon both their shoulders,

וַיֵּלְכוּ אֲחֹרַנִּית

and went backward,

וַיְכַסּוּ אֵת עֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם

and covered the nakedness of their father;

וּפְנֵיהֶם אֲחֹרַנִּית

and their faces were backward,

וְעֶרְוַת אֲבִיהֶם לֹא רָאוּ׃

and they saw not their father’s nakedness.

כד וַיִּיקֶץ נֹחַ מִיֵּינוֹ

24 And Noah awoke from his wine,

וַיֵּדַע אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה לוֹ בְּנוֹ הַקָּטָן׃

and knew what his younger son had done unto him.

כה וַיֹּאמֶר

25 And he said,

אָרוּר כְּנָעַן

Cursed be Canaan;

עֶבֶד עֲבָדִים יִהְיֶה לְאֶחָיו׃

a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren.

כו וַיֹּאמֶר

26 And he said,

בָּרוּךְ יהוה אֱלֹהֵי שֵׁם

Blessed be the LORD God of Shem;

וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃

and Canaan shall be his servant.

כז יַפְתְּ אֱלֹהִים לְיֶפֶת

27 God shall enlarge Japheth,

וְיִשְׁכֹּן בְּאָהֳלֵי־שֵׁם

and he shall dwell in the tents of Shem; [32]

וִיהִי כְנַעַן עֶבֶד לָמוֹ׃

and Canaan shall be his servant.

כח וַיְחִי־נֹחַ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל

28 And Noah lived after the flood

שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה׃

three hundred and fifty years.

כט וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי־נֹחַ

29 And all the days of Noah were

תְּשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַחֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה

nine hundred and fifty years:

וַיָּמֹת׃

and he died.

 


 

 

Japheth was blessed by being given dominion over Europe which would ultimately conquer the world.  Hence Japheth was the first to be blessed with twelve tribes.  Shem later gives rise to six more such 12 tribed nations the last of which is Israel which rules from Jerusalem:

 

THE TWELVE TRIBES OF JAPHETH

 

1

Ashkenaz

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gomer

 

 

2

Riphath

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Togarmah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Magog

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Madai

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

Elishah

JAPHETH

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Togarmah

 

 

 

Javan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

Kittim

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

Dodanim

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

Tubal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11

Meshech

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12

Tiras

 

Flavius Josephus, Antiquitates Judaicae Book I.vi.1.122

ἱστοριῶν τῆς Ἰουδαικῆς ἀρχαιολογίας

αφθ μν ον το Νχου παιδς σαν πτ υο. κατοικοσι δ οτοι π Ταρου κα μνου τν ρν ρξμενοι κα προλθον π μν τς σας χρι ποταμο Τανιδος, π δ τς Ερπης ως Γαδερων γν ν τυχον καταλαμβνοντες, κα μηδενς προκατκηκτος τ θνη τος ατν κλουν νμασιν.

Japhet, the son of Noah, had seven sons: they inhabited so, that, beginning at the mountains Taurus and Amanus, they proceeded along Asia, as far as the river Tanais, and along Europe to Cadiz; and settling themselves on the lands which they light upon, which none had inhabited before, they called the nations by their own names.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE SEVEN TWELVE TRIBED NATIONS OF GENESIS

 

 

Noah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

JAPHETH

Genesis 10:2-5

Shem

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arphaxad

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eber

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Peleg

JOKTAN

Genesis 10:26-30

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Serug

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nahor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Terah

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

NAHOR

Genesis 22:20-24

Abraham

 

 

 

 

 

 

sons of Keturah

Genesis 25:1-6

Isaac

ISHMAEL

Genesis 17:20; 25:12-18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

EDOM

Genesis 36:1-43

 

 

ISRAEL

Genesis 46:8-27

 

 

 

Chapter 10:1 through 11:9 belongs to the account of the flood, because the purpose of the flood was the purification of the seed of Adam and conferring dominion over the nations on his seed through the sons of Noah.  The ruling dynasties are named in the Table of Nations (Gen 10) and they are dispersed at the tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9).  Genesis 11:10-26, called “the generations of Shem”, link the covenant of the rainbow to the choosing of Abraham and his seed.

 

Why a local flood?  First—because of my interpretation of Genesis 9:1 (meaning that Noah’s seed are to rule the nations—nations already there), and because the Table of Nations does not match the proto-languages of mankind.

 

That latter statement is difficult for some.  But if the miracle of languages at Babel was the source of the Proto-Languages of mankind, which would be the case if the flood were universal, we have a problem.  Why?  Because the diversity of the world’s languages is too great.  There are too many language families: Athabaskan, Austrasiatic, Basque, Dravidian, Uralic, Indo-European, Khoisan, Niger-Kordofanian, Nilo-Saharan, North Caucasian, Sino-Tibetan, etc.  Also the time depth required for the diversification found within these families is too great for a 3rd millennium bce dispersal, and what we know historically and archaeologically does not match.  For example, Canaan is given 11 nations in Genesis 10 yet we know from history that all the Canaanites spoke Northwest Semitic (Hebrew).  Shem’s firstborn, Elam, was obviously sent to ancient Elam whose language was definitely not “Semitic”.

 

And if Europe was Japhetic why was it that Europe was overrun by one great language family—Indo-European?  Indo-European has come to dominate the world.  Apart from the Mongol, Turkic and later Arab empires, and the expansions of indigenous peoples such as the Bantu in Africa and the Algonquians and Uto-Aztecans in the Americas, it has been a requirement that every dominant empire speak Indo-European.

 

For example, Elam was a great nation but not until the Indo-European Persians dominated the area could a great empire expand from that territory.  Minoan civilization flourished in the Aegean, but not until the peoples of the area adopted the Indo-European Greek could they flourish as an empire.  Other languages (Austroasiatic, Burushaski, Dravidian, Indus-Valley and Sino-Tibetan) were spoken in the subcontinent of India, but not until invaded by the Indo-European Indo-Aryans did a great Hindu civilization arise that has influenced all of Asia.

 

The Etruscans adopted the alphabet and first dominated the Italian peninsula, but it was the small Indo-European colony of Latium on the Tiber that Rome could arise as a great empire.

 

France and Spain hosted many languages (Basque being a remnant), but they build empires only after adopting and evolving the Indo-European language of Rome.

 

The British isles are thought to have hosted a variety of languages, perhaps Iberian and even Semitic, but they did not build an empire until unified by an Indo-European language—English.  Yes, English and other languages of Europe may have been influenced by other substrata and the influx of Hebrew speaking peoples, but none built an empire that did not speak languages with derivative Into-European grammars and heavy Indo-European vocabulary.

 

The forest of the north and the east was populated by Uralic speakers, but not until speakers of Slavic dialects of Indo-European overran them did we see the Russian empire emerge.

 

Proto-Indo-European already had deep dialect fissures at the mid 2nd millennium bce that speak of an ancestry further back than the dispersal at Babel.  But whatever the source—exactly which name was it in Genesis that inherited the dominion of the world through Indo-European?  And how many who pontificate on these things are willing to grapple with these questions?

 

I would suggest that the biggest things in history should receive the biggest mention in the Bible.  So why does everyone attempt to just sweep Indo-European under the rug?

 

And so I theorize—at least until shown wrong—that Adam was not the first human being but rather the first messiah sent to save a humanity under the dominion of fallen angels.  God has allotted six millennia (plus a small space at the end of the seventh millennium) to replace the rule of those angels.  And thus the spirits cried out (Mat 8:29), “What have we to do with thee, Jesus, thou Son of God? art thou come hither to torment us before the time?”  The time is coming when their sway is finished (Heb 2:5), “For unto the angels hath he not put in subjection the world to come, whereof we speak.”  Also that says to me that the so-called Arian position—that the messiah is a preexistent created spirit—is wrong.

 

 

Genesis 6:4

הַנְּפִלִים הָיוּ בָאָרֶץ

There were giants in the earth

οἱ δὲ γίγαντες ἦσαν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς

בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם

in those days;

ἐν ταῖς ἡμέραις ἐκείναις

וְגַם אַחֲרֵי־כֵן

and also after that,

καὶ μετ' ἐκεῖνο

אֲשֶׁר יָבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים

when the sons of God came

ὡς ἂν εἰσεπορεύοντο οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ θεοῦ

אֶל־בְּנוֹת הָאָדָם

in unto the daughters of men,

πρὸς τὰς θυγατέρας τῶν ἀνθρώπων

וְיָלְדוּ לָהֶם

and they bare children to them,

καὶ ἐγεννῶσαν ἑαυτοῖς

הֵמָּה הַגִּבֹּרִים

the same became mighty men

ἐκεῖνοι ἦσαν οἱ γίγαντες

אֲשֶׁר מֵעוֹלָם

which were of old,

οἱ ἀπ' αἰῶνος

אַנְשֵׁי הַשֵּׁם׃

men of renown.

οἱ ἄνθρωποι οἱ ὀνομαστοί

 

Numbers 33:

לג וְשָׁם רָאִינוּ

And there we saw

καὶ ἐκεῖ ἑωράκαμεν

אֶת־הַנְּפִילִים

the giants,

τοὺς γίγαντας

בְּנֵי עֲנָק

the sons of Anak,

 

מִן־הַנְּפִלִים

which come of the giants:

 

וַנְּהִי בְעֵינֵינוּ

and we were in our own sight

καὶ ἦμεν ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν

כַּחֲגָבִים

as grasshoppers,

ὡσεὶ ἀκρίδες

וְכֵן הָיִינוּ בְּעֵינֵיהֶם׃

and so we were in their sight.

ἀλλὰ καὶ οὕτως ἦμεν ἐνώπιον αὐτῶν

 

Genesis 10:1

א וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ

1 Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah,

שֵׁם חָם וָיָפֶת

Shem, Ham, and Japheth:

וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לָהֶם בָּנִים אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃

and unto them were sons born after the flood.

 

Genesis 10:32

לב אֵלֶּה מִשְׁפְּחֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ

32 These are the families of the sons of Noah,

לְתוֹלְדֹתָם בְּגוֹיֵהֶם

after their generations, in their nations:

וּמֵאֵלֶּה נִפְרְדוּ הַגּוֹיִם

and by these were the nations divided

בָּאָרֶץ אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃

in the earth after the flood.

 

Genesis 11:10

י אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת שֵׁם

10 These are the generations of Shem:

שֵׁם בֶּן־מְאַת שָׁנָה

Shem was an hundred years old,

וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־אַרְפַּכְשָׁד שְׁנָתַיִם אַחַר הַמַּבּוּל׃

and begat Arphaxad two years after the flood:

 

Isaiah 44:

כו מֵקִים דְּבַר עַבְדּוֹ

26 That confirmeth the word of his servant,

καὶ ἱστῶν ῥήματα παιδὸς αὐτοῦ

וַעֲצַת מַלְאָכָיו יַשְׁלִים

and performeth the counsel of his messengers;

καὶ τὴν βουλὴν τῶν ἀγγέλων αὐτοῦ ἀληθεύων

הָאֹמֵר לִירוּשָׁלִַם

that saith to Jerusalem,

ὁ λέγων ιερουσαλημ

תּוּשָׁב

Thou shalt be inhabited;

κατοικηθήσῃ

וּלְעָרֵי יְהוּדָה

and to the cities of Judah,

καὶ ταῖς πόλεσιν τῆς ιουδαίας

תִּבָּנֶינָה

Ye shall be built,

οἰκοδομηθήσεσθε

וְחָרְבוֹתֶיהָ אֲקוֹמֵם׃

and I will raise up the decayed places thereof:

καὶ τὰ ἔρημα αὐτῆς ἀνατελεῖ

כז הָאֹמֵר לַצּוּלָה

27 That saith to the deep,

ὁ λέγων τῇ ἀβύσσῳ

חֳרָבִי

Be dry,

ἐρημωθήσῃ

וְנַהֲרֹתַיִךְ אוֹבִישׁ׃

and I will dry up thy rivers:

καὶ τοὺς ποταμούς σου ξηρανῶ

כח הָאֹמֵר לְכוֹרֶשׁ

28 That saith of Cyrus,

ὁ λέγων κύρῳ

רֹעִי

He is my shepherd,

φρονεῖν

וְכָל־חֶפְצִי יַשְׁלִם

and shall perform all my pleasure:

καὶ πάντα τὰ θελήματά μου ποιήσει

וְלֵאמֹר לִירוּשָׁלִַם

even saying to Jerusalem,

ὁ λέγων ιερουσαλημ

תִּבָּנֶה

Thou shalt be built;

οἰκοδομηθήσῃ

וְהֵיכָל

and to the temple,

καὶ τὸν οἶκον τὸν ἅγιόν μου

תִּוָּסֵד׃

Thy foundation shall be laid.

θεμελιώσω

 

Flavius Josephus, The Judean Antiquities, Book 1, Whiston Chapter 3, Whiston Section 1.

http://pace.mcmaster.ca/york/york/showText?book=1&chapter=2&textChunk=nieseSection&chunkId=67&text=anti&version=&direction=up&tab=comm&layout=split&up.x=11&up.y=6

73 πολλοὶ γὰρ ἄγγελοι θεοῦ γυναιξὶ συνιόντες ὑβριστὰς ἐγέννησαν παῖδας καὶ παντὸς ὑπερόπτας καλοῦ διὰ τὴν ἐπὶ τῇ δυνάμει πεποίθησιν: ὅμοια τοῖς ὑπὸ γιγάντων τετολμῆσθαι λεγομένοις ὑφ᾽ Ἑλλήνων καὶ οὗτοι δράσαι παραδίδονται.

For many angels of God,172 consorting with women, fathered children who were insolent173 and despisers of every good thing because of the confidence that they had in their power. For, according to tradition, they are said to have committed outrages174 comparable to those said by the Greeks175 to have been done by giants.176

172 The Hebrew version of the Bible (Gen. 6:2), as well as Bib. Ant. 3.1, speaks of sons of God rather than of angels, though ἄγγελοι is an alternative reading of the LXX. Philo (De Gigantibus 2.6), indeed, reads ἄγγελοι in his quotation of this passage. Philo (Quaestionesin Genesin 1.92) asks why the giants were born from angels and women. On the sinning angels see Jub. 4:15, 4:22, 5:1; 2 Enoch 18; 2 Peter 2:4 and Jude 1:6; Ps.–Clem., Hom. 8.11-15; Aggadat Bereshit (Introduction, ed. Buber, p. 39), and the extensive discussion by Ginzberg (1925:5:153-56 n.57). Dexinger (1966:96) declines to accept the view that Josephus, in his reference here to ἄγγελοι θεοῦ, was thinking of the Sethites. He notes this phrase as an example of how easily Josephus can combine Greek mythology and the Bible. Curtius (1953:219) notes that Josephus’ comparison of the fallen angels with the giants of Greek mythology has been taken over by Tertullian (Apol. 22) and Lactantius ( Inst. Div. 10.14).

173 Levine (1993:61) comments on the word that is used here for “insolent” (ὑβριστάς) and the expectations of punishment by Josephus’ Greek-educated audience ( Ant. 1.100). Josephus here associates improper sex acts with their resulting ὕβρις.

174 Philo (Quaestiones in Genesin 1.92) speaks of the contempt and arrogance of these angels “toward the better.”

175Sibylline Oracles (3) also identifies these giants with the Titans of Greek mythology. Whereas Gen. 6:5 remarks merely on the wickedness of this generation, Josephus discusses the punishment by God of these sons of angels in language reminiscent of Greek tragedy, asserting that they were overbearing (ὑβριστάς) and disdainful of every virtue, being over-confident in their strength.

176 Here Josephus seems careful not to equate these men with the giants of Greek mythology but merely to say that they are comparable to the giants mentioned by the Greeks. Yet in Ant. 1.174 he speaks of the Assyrians’ subduing the descendants of the giants. According to Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs ( Reuben 5:6), the angels took the shape of men; “and the women, lusting in their minds after their forms, gave birth to giants.” Cf. Philo (Quaestiones in Genesin 1.92), who says that the term “sons of God” refers to excellent men, whereas wicked men are called “bodies.” So also rabbinic tradition (Sifre Num. 86, Sifre Zuta 194 [ed. Horovitz, p. 269], Midrash Gen. Rabbah 27.2-5) identifies the sons of God as distinguished men. Note Josephus’ omission of the anthropomorphic statement (Gen. 6:6) that God repented that He had created humanity.

 


 

[1] I have adjusted the KJV such that everywhere the Hebrew אֶרֶץ ’éreṣ is translated ‘land’ and the Hebrew אֲדָמָה ’ădāmāʰ is translated ‘ground’. The word אֶרֶץ ére is best translated ‘land’, inasmuch as it names the dry land (הַיַּבָּשָׁה) as opposed to the seas (Gen 1:10), “And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas...”  When we translate אֶרֶץ ére as ‘earth’ people today tend to think of the Earth—the planet.

 

[2] The plural term “sons of God” is rare in the Tanakh, occurring only (as far as I know) in the following verses:

 

 

Masoretic

Septuagint

Vulgate

Genesis 6:2

בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים

οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ Θεοῦ

filii Dei

Genesis 6:4

בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים

οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ Θεοῦ

filii Dei

Job 1:6

בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים

οἱ ἄγγελοι τοῦ Θεοῦ

filii Dei

Job 2:1

בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים

οἱ ἄγγελοι τοῦ Θεοῦ

filii Dei

Job 38:7

כָּל־בְּנֵי אֱלֹהִים

πάντες ἄγγελοί μου

omnes filii Dei

Psalms 29:1

בְּנֵי אֵלִים

υἱοὶ Θεοῦ

Domino filios

Psalms 89:6[7]

בִּבְנֵי אֵלִים

ἐν υἱοῖς Θεοῦ

de filiis Dei

Psalms 82:6

וּבְנֵי עֶלְיֹון

καὶ υἱοὶ Ὑψίστου

et filii Excelsi

Hosea 1:10[2:1]

בְּנֵי אֵל־חָי

υἱοὶ Θεοῦ ζῶντος

filii Dei viventis

In pre-Talmudic Judaism the sons of God were angels, as in Flavius Josephus, The Judean Antiquities, Book 1, Whiston Chapter 3, Whiston Section 1.

73 πολλοὶ γὰρ ἄγγελοι θεοῦ γυναιξὶ συνιόντες ὑβριστὰς ἐγέννησαν παῖδας καὶ παντὸς ὑπερόπτας καλοῦ διὰ τὴν ἐπὶ τῇ δυνάμει πεποίθησιν: ὅμοια τοῖς ὑπὸ γιγάντων τετολμῆσθαι λεγομένοις ὑφ᾽ Ἑλλήνων καὶ οὗτοι δράσαι παραδίδονται.

For many angels of God, consorting with women, fathered children who were insolent and despisers of every good thing because of the confidence that they had in their power. For, according to tradition, they are said to have committed outrages comparable to those said by the Greeks to have been done by giants.

 

[3] Though the verb may be different, לֹא־יָדוֹן רוּחִי בָאָדָם לְעֹלָם ‘My spirit shall not always strive with man…’ nevertheless reminds me of Psalms 110:6, יָדִין בַּגּוֹיִם ‘He shall judge among the heathen…’

 

[4] The Hebrew has נְפִלִים nəphilîm, which the Septuagint translates γίγαντες ‘giants’.  The word occurs again only in Numbers 13:33—“And there we saw the [hannəphîlîm - הַנְּפִילִים], the sons of Anak, which come of the [hannəphilîm - הַנְּפִלִים]: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight.”  Perhaps a better translation would have been ‘fallen ones’, for the word looks like a derivation of נָפַל nāphal ‘fall’.

 

[5] It is from here (and Gen 8:21) that the Jewish concept of ‘the evil inclination’ (יֵצֶר הָרָע yēṣer hārā‘) derives.

 

[6] Is it significant that only the land and flying creatures were to be destroyed, whereas Adam was given dominion over not just these but also the fish (Gen 1:26-28), just as were the sons of Noah to receive dominion over all three domains (chapter 9)?  Yet Adam named only the land and flying creatures (Gen 2), and in the sheet that came down in Peter’s vision (Acts 10) there are no fish but only land and flying creatures, nor do fish ever appear in any of the sacrifices.  If the sea symbolizes the nations in rebellion, might this be a factor in the symbolism here?  And in the choice of a flood for God’s purpose?

 

[7] Genesis divides naturally into sections labeled tolədoth ‘generations’.  There is a verse in Numbers that speaks of the priestly generations, a verse in Ruth that refers to the royal generations, and the New Testament opens with the generations of Jesus (see Shem-Tob Matthew).  The pattern narrows down from the dominion of the heavens and the earth to Israel and its priestly and royal genealogies.

 

Genesis 2:4

אֵלֶּה תוֹלְדוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ

These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth...

 

Genesis 5:1

זֶה סֵפֶר תּוֹלְדֹת אָדָם

This is the book of the generations of Adam…

 

Genesis 6:9

אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ

These are the generations of Noah…

 

Genesis 10:1

וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת בְּנֵי־נֹחַ

Now these are the generations of the sons of Noah…

 

Genesis 11:10

אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת שֵׁם

These are the generations of Shem…

 

Genesis 11:27

וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת תֶּרַח

Now these are the generations of Terah…

 

Genesis 25:12

וְאֵלֶּה תֹּלְדֹת יִשְׁמָעֵאל

Now these are the generations of Ishmael…

 

Genesis 25:19

וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת יִצְחָק

And these are the generations of Isaac…

 

Genesis 36:1

וְאֵלֶּה תֹּלְדוֹת עֵשָׂו

Now these are the generations of Esau…

 

Genesis 36:9

וְאֵלֶּה תֹּלְדוֹת עֵשָׂו

And these are the generations of Esau…

 

Genesis 37:2

אֵלֶּה תֹּלְדוֹת יַעֲקֹב

These are the generations of Jacob…

 

Numbers 3:1

וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת אַהֲרֹן וּמֹשֶׁה

These also are the generations of Aaron and Moses…

 

Ruth 4:18

וְאֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדוֹת פָּרֶץ

Now these are the generations of Pharez…

 

Matthew 1:1

אֵלֶּה תֹּלְדוֹת יש"ו

These are the generations of Jesus…

 

[8] חָמָס ḥāmās ‘violence’.  Compare Hamas (حماس ḥamās ‘enthusiasm’, an acronym of  حركة المقاومة الاسلاميّة Ḥarakat al-Muqāwamah al-ʾIslāmīyah, “Islamic Resistance Movement”).

 

[9] The Hebrew term תֵּבָה tēbāʰ, translated ‘ark’, is unique to the flood story and the ark of bulrushes in which Moses was saved (Exodus 2:3-5): “And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes [תֵּבַת גֹּמֶא], and daubed it with slime and with pitch, and put the child therein; and she laid it in the flags by the river’s brink. And his sister stood afar off, to wit what would be done to him. And the daughter of Pharaoh came down to wash herself at the river; and her maidens walked along by the river’s side; and when she saw the ark among the flags [וַתֵּרֶא אֶת־הַתֵּבָה בְּתוֹךְ הַסּוּף], she sent her maid to fetch it.”  The word is believed to be the Egyptian tbt ‘box, coffin’.  Just as in the ark upon the waters of the flood God preserved the human leadership of his kingdom, so in the ark of bulrushes God preserved the human leadership of Israel.

 

[10] Gopher wood (עֲצֵי־גֹפֶר)—the term gopher (גֹפֶר) is a hapax legomenon, meaning that it only occurs this once in all the Bible.

 

[11] Gen 6:14 is the only place in Scripture where כֹּפֶר kṓper means ‘pitch’.  It is likely a cognate of or borrowing from the Akkadian kupru ‘bitumen’.   Hereכֹּפֶר  kṓper ‘pitch’ patterns with theוְכָפַרְתָּ  wəkāpartā ‘and thou shalt cover’,  which the qal perfect of the same root kpr with other derivations that are translated ‘atone’.

 

[12] The word מַבּוּל mabbûl refers only to the Flood of Noah and is perhaps related to the Akkadian abubu which also refers to the great flood.  The word occurs 12 times in Genesis (Gen 6:17; 7:6, 7, 10, 17; 9:11, 15, 28; 10:1, 32; 11:10) and once in Psalms 29:

י יהוה לַמַּבּוּל יָשָׁב

10 The LORD sitteth upon the flood;

וַיֵּשֶׁב יהוה מֶלֶךְ לְעוֹלָם׃

yea, the LORD sitteth King for ever.

This accords with the view that God established his kingdom over all the nation in the 2nd millennium by purifying the corrupted seed of Adam and dispersing Noah’s children from Babel after the flood.

 

[13] This is the first occurrence of the Hebrew בְּרִית ‘covenant’—the first of some 284 mentions.

[14] Is this a forerunner of Isaiah 11:6?  “The wolf also shall dwell with the lamb, and the leopard shall lie down with the kid; and the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; and a little child shall lead them.”

 

[15] Here is an example where “house” doesn’t mean the concrete building.

 

[16] Compare chapter 6:9.

 

[17]by sevens”: does this include both unclean and clean birds?

 

[18] This verse is reminiscent of Genesis 2 (my translation):

ה וְכֹל שִׂיחַ הַשָּׂדֶה טֶרֶם יִהְיֶה בָאָרֶץ

5 And before any plant of the field was in the land,

וְכָל־עֵשֶׂב הַשָּׂדֶה טֶרֶם יִצְמָח

and before any herb of the field sprouted,

כִּי לֹא הִמְטִיר יהוה אֱלֹהִים עַל־הָאָרֶץ

when YHWH God had not caused it to rain upon the land,

וְאָדָם אַיִן לַעֲבֹד אֶת־הָאֲדָמָה׃

and there was not a man to till the ground.

ו וְאֵד יַעֲלֶה מִן־הָאָרֶץ

6 then there arose an [’ēd] from the land,

וְהִשְׁקָה אֶת־כָּל־פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה׃

and watered the whole face of the ground.

 

[19] Here עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם ‘upon the face of the waters’ recalls Genesis 1:2— וְרוּחַ אֱלֹהִים מְרַחֶפֶת עַל־פְּנֵי הַמָּיִם ‘and the spirit of God brooded upon the face of the waters’.

 

[20] “that were under all the sky.”  This need mean no more than all the high hills visible from on high.  The Hebrew שָׁמַיִם šāmáyim, generally translated “heaven” or “heavens”, simply means ‘sky’.

 

[21] Does this mean that the waters covered the highest mountains—perhaps the Himalayas—to a depth of 15 cubits?  Or does it mean that from some point in that locale the waters prevailed upward 15 cubits and then the mountains/hills/tells of that region were covered?

 

[22] Connect to Genesis 7:11.

 

[23] Ararat (אֲרָרָט ’ărārāṭ) is not the name of a mountain but rather of an ancient kingdom, called Urarṭu in the cuneiform documents.

 

[24] 1Kings 17:2 “And the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, 3 Get thee hence, and turn thee eastward, and hide thyself by the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan. 4 And it shall be, that thou shalt drink of the brook; and I have commanded the ravens to feed thee there [וְאֶת־הָעֹרְבִים צִוִּיתִי לְכַלְכֶּלְךָ שָׁם]. 5 So he went and did according unto the word of the LORD: for he went and dwelt by the brook Cherith, that is before Jordan. 6 And the ravens brought him bread and flesh in the morning, and bread and flesh in the evening [וְהָעֹרְבִים מְבִאִים לוֹ לֶחֶם וּבָשָׂר בַּבֹּקֶר וְלֶחֶם וּבָשָׂר בָּעָרֶב]; and he drank of the brook. 7 And it came to pass after a while, that the brook dried up, because there had been no rain in the land.”

 

[25] Perhaps this prefigures the fact that the 3rd time in the land Israel does not return to exile ever again.

[26] Man was not cursed—rather (Gen 3:17), “And unto Adam he said, … cursed is the ground for thy sake [אֲרוּרָה הָאֲדָמָה בַּעֲבוּרֶךָ]…”   Noah’s task was forseen by his father Lamech (Gen 5:29): “And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands, because of the ground which the LORD hath cursed [מִן־הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר אֵרְרָהּ יהוה].”  Oddly here the name Noah (נֹחַ nōaḥ) is not related etymologically to ‘he shall comfort us’ (יְנַחֲמֵנוּ yənaḥămēnû).  The latter anticipates Isaiah 40:1,

נַחֲמוּ נַחֲמוּ עַמִּי יֹאמַר אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃

Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God.

 

[27] Compare Genesis 6:5.

[28] Here the verb יִשְׁבֹּתוּ yišbōtû ‘they shall cease’ occurs first in Genesis 2:2-3, “And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested [וַיִּשְׁבֹּת] on the seventh day from all his work which he had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested [שָׁבַת] from all his work which God created [to make].”  The next two occurrence involve the causative, in Exodus 5:5, “And Pharaoh said, Behold, the people of the land now are many, and ye make them rest [וְהִשְׁבַּתֶּם] from their burdens.”  And in Exodus 12:15, “Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; even the first day ye shall put away [תַּשְׁבִּיתוּ] leaven out of your houses: for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.”  And next there is Exodus 16:30 (“So the people rested [וַיִּשְׁבְּתוּ] on the seventh day.”), same as in Genesis 8:22.  There is a place in the Talmud where this is taken to mean that the Gentile must not keep the Sabbath on penalty of death (Sanhedrin 58b):

וְאָמַר רֵישׁ לָקִישׁ

And Resh Laqish said,

עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁשָּׁבַת חַיָּיב מִיתָה

One who serves the stars who ceased is liable to death,

שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר

as it says (Genesis 8:22),

וְיוֹם וָלַיְלָה לֹא יִשְׁבֹּתוּ

“and day and night they shall not cease.”

Many including Maimonides concur (Mishne Torah, Laws of Kings and their Wars, Chapter 10)

ט  גּוֹי שֶׁעָסַק בְּתוֹרָה חַיָּיב מִיתָה

9 A Gentile who is involved with Torah, death is required;

לֹא יַעֲסוֹק

he should not be involved

אֶלָּא בְּשֶׁבַע מִצְווֹת שֶׁלָהֶן בִּלְבַד.

except in the seven commandments provided for them.

 

 

[29] This of course refers back to Genesis 1 where at the end of the sixth day/millennium God provides spiritual sustenance through those who began to grow with the covenant of the third day/millennium (Gen 1:29-30):

And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.

Psalms 1:3—“And he shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of water, that bringeth forth his fruit in his season; his leaf also shall not wither; and whatsoever he doeth shall prosper.”

Proverbs 11:30—“The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life; and he that winneth souls is wise.”

Revelation 22:2—“In the midst of the street of it, and on either side of the river, was there the tree of life, which bare twelve manner of fruits, and yielded her fruit every month: and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of the nations.”

So why the permission to eat meat now?  Perhaps because after the flood the unconverted sons of Noah would rule by the sword and so symbolically they were allowed to kill and eat.  The time of Isaiah 11 is at the climax of the 6th day Genesis 1.

 

[30] The token (אוֹת ’ôt) of the covenant of the nation is circumcision (Gen 17:11), “…and it shall be a token (אוֹת) of the covenant betwixt me and you.”  And the token of the covenant at Sinai is the Sabbath (Ex 31:17): “It is a sign (אוֹת) between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.”

 

[31] On one level, perhaps, “all flesh” should be understood as God’s ruling Adamic lineage which culminates in Israel (Isaiah 54:9): “For this is as the waters of Noah unto me: for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth; so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee.”

[32] This can be read, “and he (God) shall dwell in the tents of Shem”.  Where shall God dwell?  “In Salem also is his tabernacle, and his dwelling place in Zion.” (Psalms 76:2)  Therefore Melchizedek was Shem for, as it says (Gen 14:18), “And Melchizedek king of Salem...”

 

 

October 2, 2011

Howdy again,

 

As for the Medved book—mostly I’d say it’s a book one should at least know about.  Medved does it well and he’s not dogmatic.  He tries to equate the days of creation with the stages of the Big Bang, he takes, for example, the firmament of the 2nd day that divided between the waters to be the separation of matter from antimatter.  He’s a physicist but brings in a lot of rabbinical lore as well.  I do not deny that Genesis might speak to such things—that I do not know—and though I doubt the validity of the Big Bang it just may be that anticipated in Genesis are deep secrets of science—many perhaps yet undiscovered.  Just like the Torah codes, there might really be something there, who knows really?   But these ideas must be advanced, as Medved and Schroeder and Ross have tried, and then they must stand up to some pretty serious scrutiny.  And if the Big Bang proves to be false … well … they start over.   I’m a big believer that Scripture contains layers of meaning, that prophecy—as the sages said—consists of “templates in time” that might have many fulfillments where most times not every feature applies.

 

When we came to AC our teachers said that Genesis could be read as a local flood—I think CVD may have been one who said this.  The major argument that it was universal was that if it were local then why didn’t God just have them migrate?  We knew that eretz meant ‘land’ and not planet Earth, and that Ararat didn’t mean the high mountain that goes by that name today but rather the ancient country of Urartu, and we knew that Genesis 7:20 (“Fifteen cubits upward did the waters prevail; and the mountains were covered.”) contains ambiguities.  For one thing, the word הֶהָרִים can mean mountains or hills, and it might be that the waters rose but a mere 15 cubits from where they were to begin with and then the hills or tels on the Mesopotamian plain were covered.  Here, I’ve appended the account (which I made for my own study) with KJV translation except that every instance of אֶרֶץ eretz has been changed to ‘land’.

 

As for just migrating—well, God is not into practicality.  He likes symbolism.  So Israel doesn’t leave Egypt the easiest way, and there was the parting of the sea (could he not just have led them up the coast and made the Philistines hold their fire?), and there was Ezekiel lying so many days on each side, Jonah and the great fish, etc.  God is into symbolism—by which I do not mean that it’s only symbolism and no actual symbol.  I say there was a real parting of the sea, a great fish, Ezekiel lying on his side, etc.  No, symbolism involves both the symbol and that which is symbolized.  Therefore everything is literal just as stated in Genesis.  There was a real Adam, Eve, creatures, trees, Noah, and the chronology is accurate—if we have to deny the reality of the symbols (for Paul Adam symbolizes Christ) then why should we trust any deeper meaning?  The scholars in good standing in this world call it all metaphor, but then they never get around to telling us what the metaphor stands for other than perhaps some vacuous trivialities.  As Upton Sinclair said, “It is difficult to get a man to understand something, when his salary depends upon his not understanding it!”

 

So, no, it’s all very real but it’s symbolizing something bigger—just as we will be observing a real day Thursday which symbolizes something bigger than us or the day.  On the rivers I recommend you read Dora Hamblin’s article.  The Bible is clear—it’s the Tigris and Euphrates and two other rivers.  But it’s confusing when it says (Gen 2:10), “And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.”  Are the “heads” downriver from the Garden (a la David Rohl)?  Or are they upriver (a la Juris Zarins)?  Seems there’re always two choices!  I go with Zarins, however, partly because in all the world when ‘head’ is metaphorically applied to rivers—as my old colleague Bernd Heine has shown—it refers to the headwaters, tributaries upriver, and not the mouth of a river.  Therefore the Garden lies buried at the northern end of the Persian Gulf, perhaps just about where Dilmun was to the ancient Sumerians.

 

Again—why might this be important?  Because the world has rejected Scripture based on its being convinced that Genesis has been soundly refuted.  Believers believe, of course, however it is they interpret the passages, but the world is utterly convinced of the opposite—Genesis is myth and therefore the Bible should be given no space and no authority in the public square.  The bee in my bonnet for the past 30 years has been to show them that they are wrong and that Genesis stands as a profound piece of divine revelation.  But to do this I have to understand it—which, I’ll tell you, ain’t easy. --NR

 

October 2, 2011

Well,

 

Most people who opt for a local flood do so because the global one is supposedly untenable geologically.  I suspect that they are right, but have been drawn to the local interpretation on the basis of my take on the Covenant of the Rainbow and peculiar slant on Genesis 1 & 2.

 

I believe that the creatures in Genesis 1-2 (however not denying that real animals were involved) represent the nations, just as in Isaiah 11 and just as the sages said, with those coming up from the sea being the empires of the 5th millennium (Byzantium, the Caliphate, etc.) and those arising from the land being the nation states initially established by the Vikings (the Vikings!) which in the 2nd half of the same millennium gave rise of the United States as also the British and French and Russian and Hapsburg and Ottoman Empires and the hundred plus nations in the world today.  It was this rabbinical view, you might recall, that inspired my interpretation of Col 1:16: “For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him”.  If we use Scripture to interpret Scripture we can make the case, even though there is, of course, very little chance anyone today would buy into it.

 

Thus my key passage is Genesis 9:1-3: “And God blessed Noah and his sons, and said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and [fill] the earth. And the fear of you and the dread of you shall be upon every beast of the earth, and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes of the sea; into your hand are they delivered. Every moving thing that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the green herb have I given you all things.”

 

Here the command to be fruitful and multiply and fill the land is the same as in Gen 1:28, which on the millennial scale awaits being fulfilled by Christ and the church (Eph 5:32).  Thus I see Noah and his rowdy sons being given dominion early in mid second millennium over all the nations THAT WERE NOT DESTROYED IN THE FLOOD.  Except for Noah’s eight, the Flood would have obliterated the seed of Adam, that long lived antediluvian line God had created as to provide the deliverer of a humanity lost and bound to the rule of fallen angels.  That human family so lost and doomed was not the target of the Flood.  The whole project, from Adam to us, is to replace the rule of those angels (Heb 2:5), “For unto the angels hath he not put in subjection the world to come, whereof we speak.”  As Gregory Boyd pointed out, those angels were promised a certain amount of time, which is why they cried out to Jesus (Mat 8:29), “…art thou come hither to torment us before the time?”

 

Nebuchadnezzar was of Adam’s line through Shem, Terah, Nahor, and Nahor’s son Chesed (eponymous father of the Chasdim or Chaldeans), and he had been given dominion even to the destruction of Jerusalem, and so the most High’s message to him was that “the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and giveth it to whomsoever he will” (Dan 4:17, 25, 32; 5:21).  No, not stand back and allow it to happen—rather the most High (Dan 2:21) “…removeth kings, and setteth up kings” and (Job 12:23), “He increaseth the nations, and destroyeth them: he enlargeth the nations, and straiteneth them again.”  And again it says (Ps 75:7), “But God is the judge: he putteth down one, and setteth up another.”  Sometimes we get what we deserve—as even now might be the case.

 

When and how did the most High establish this rule in the kingdom of men?

 

In was on the 2nd day—meaning in the 2nd millennium—when as it says (Gen 1:8), “And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.”  For as God explains (Isaiah 66:1), “The heaven is my throne,” and as David sings (Psalms 11:4), “The LORD is in his holy temple, the LORD’s throne is in heaven: his eyes behold, his eyelids try, the children of men.”  And the only time the word for Noah’s flood (mabbul) occurs outside the account in Genesis is in Psalms 29:10: “The LORD sitteth [Heb. yashav ‘sat’] upon the flood; yea, the LORD sitteth King for ever.”

 

God established his kingdom over the nations through the unconverted sons of Noah in the 2nd millennium.

 

But instead those sons banded together and built their tower.  The Tower of Babel could not have provided the origin of the world’s languages, not given the short span of biblical chronology, the linguistic map in Genesis 10 and the interpretation of those names elsewhere in Scripture and history, etc.  Rather, for example, Mizraim found himself speaking Egyptian and thus he and his family migrated over the hump from the Red Sea into the Nile valley (such as David Rohl describes in “Pharaohs and Kings”).  Shem’s son Elam ended up speaking Elamite and thus was motivated to migrate to Elam where he would have taken the royal title of “Chedorlaomer” (Gen 14:1f.).

 

So how did the most High establish his rule in the kingdom of men?  It was, as it says (Dan 5:21), “…that he appointeth over it whomsoever he will.”  Thus civilization began at Babel through the seed of Noah and the promise (Gen 9:11), “And I will establish my covenant with you, neither shall all flesh be cut off any more by the waters of a flood; neither shall there any more be a flood to destroy the earth.”  If here “all flesh” pertains in context to the children of Adam who survived the Flood, and not to all mankind killed in a multitude of other deluges, then the promise is pertinent to Israel, as in Isaiah 54:9, “For this is as the waters of Noah unto me: for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth; so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee.”

 

Is God overdrawn as he talks of “destroying all living creatures”?  Language and context are the here, and I’d say Genesis is no more overdrawn than when it says of an early plague (Ex 9:6), “…and all the cattle [כֹּל מִקְנֵה] of Egypt died”, but then later in the tenth and last plague it says (Ex 12:29), “And it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle [וְכֹל בְּכוֹר בְּהֵמָה].”

 

As for marine deposits on high mountains, this does not appear to be debris washed up by a monstrous flood but rather ancient sea beds and coral reefs uplifted in the long running saga of plate tectonics and mountain building.  In fact the geologists say that this would be a dead planet were it not for its abundant radioactivity.  All the land eventually erodes into the sea, but the land is alive and moving and uplifting all the while.  Bob Macdonald could wax eloquent on this, I’m not the expert.  It is true that nearly all fossils are laid down during catastrophic events, but not in a single worldwide flood—not even the two worldwide floods we once speculated.

 

If it turns out that this Seven Thousand Year model of biblical interpretation holds up, and if the geologists are right, then the Two Books—the Bible and the Book of Nature (history, geology, archaeology, paleontology, etc.)—once again not only do not contradict but they paint the same grand design.

 

Just because I know that probably nobody will ever accept my interpretation, let alone even understand what I’m saying, does not stop me from trying to figure it out.  For who knows, maybe it’s my calling to teach this in the World to Come, not to get it accepted or even considered in the here and now.  And besides it makes life interesting to have important things to figure out. --NR